How to Find Valence Electrons for Oxygen (O)?

Are looking for valence electrons for oxygen? For that you need to know about oxygen.

Oxygen is the 8th element of the periodic table. Oxygen belongs to group-16.The Symbol for the Oxygen atom is O. Oxygen use its Valence electrons to form the bonds with other elements.

An overview of this article is given here. But we will discuss valence electrons for oxygen atom in detail step by step.

What is an Oxygen (O) atom?

The oxygen atom is a member of

Group Number16
Period Number2
Atomic Number8
Number of proton in oxygen atom8
Number of Electrons in oxygen atom8
Number of neutrons in oxygen atom8
Mass of Oxygen Atom15.99903u
Symbol for OxygenO
Electron configuration of Oxygen atom2,6
Valence electrons of oxygen6
NatureNon- Metal
State at room temperatureGases
Find Valence Electrons for Oxygen

What are the valence electrons of Oxygen?

The oxygen Atom is the second element of Group-16. The Valence electrons for oxygen atom are the electrons that are present in the outermost or Last shell. The Total number of electrons in Oxygen atom outermost shell is known as Valence electrons of Oxygen (O) atom.

During the chemical reaction, only valence electrons will participate. It Means Valence electrons (outermost electrons) will decide the chemical properties of the Oxygen atom. The Electron configuration of oxygen atom is 2,6 Which shows that In the last shell of the oxygen atom will have six valence electrons.

How to find the Nature of Oxygen atom from the valence electrons for oxygen atom?

The outermost electrons determine the chemical properties of an atom whether an atom is metal or non-metal.

If the Valence electrons in Electron configuration is either 1 or 2 or 3. That given atom is Metal.

If the Valence electrons in Electron configuration are either 4 or 5 or 6 or 7. That given atom is Non-Metal.

If the Valence electrons in Electron configuration is 8 then the given atom is a Noble gas or inert gas.

As Electron configuration of Oxygen atom 2,6. So the given Oxygen atom is a Non-Metal.

How to calculate valence electrons for Oxygen atom?

We can easily find out the valence electrons in just three steps. Electron configuration of an atom is one of three steps for finding the valence electrons in an Oxygen atom. Valence electrons of an atom can only be possible with the help of Electron configuration of oxygen atom.

May be the Question arise 🙋 in your mind,

How to find the Electron configuration of an atom?

If You are knowing the Total number of electrons in an atom It is so simple to find the Electron configuration of an atom using the Bohr Principle.

Now Let’s Learn How to determine the Oxygen valence electrons.

Let say about the Oxygen atom

Step-1: Determining the total number of electrons in Oxygen

First of all we get to know the total number of electrons in the oxygen atom. To know the number of Electrons in oxygen atom, we need the number of protons present in the oxygen atom.

To know atomic number we can use the element periodic table.

The number of protons can be determined from the Atomic number of an atom.

The Atomic number can find out from periodic table. For the oxygen atom, Atomic Number is 8.

The atomic number is a number that is equal to the number of protons present in it.

So, Number of Protons = 8

According to Neil Bohr statement,

Every atom is electrically Neutral, which means an atom has the number of electrons as many protons.

Then, the Number of Electrons = 8

Step-2: Need to do electron configuration of Oxygen

This step is very important. In this step, we will arrange the number of oxygen atom for the Electron configuration of oxygen atom.

In the Electron configuration of oxygen atom we will arrange electrons in K, L  shell according to the 2n2 rule.

According to this Rule,

First K shell can occupy maximum of two electrons.

Second L shell can occupy maximum of eight electrons.

In the Electron configuration of the oxygen atom K shell have two electrons and L shell have remaining six electrons out of eight.

The Electron Configuration of oxygen will be 2,6.

Step-3: Determine the valence shell and calculate the total electrons

It is the Last step to find the valence electrons of oxygen atom.

The last shell in the Electron configuration of oxygen atom is called the valence shell or Outermost shell. As in this case L shell is outermost shell of the oxygen atom.

The Electrons present in the outermost shell is known as Valence electrons of Valence shell.

It is very clear from the Electron configuration of oxygen atom that last shell of oxygen atom have six number of electrons.

Therefore, the valence electrons of oxygen atom are six.

Just to understand with how many atoms an atom can combine we get to know about the valency. So Now!

What is the valency of Oxygen?

Valency of an atom is the combining capacity of an atom to make a bond with another atom or molecule is known as Valency (valence).

The unpaired electrons present in the last orbit is known as valency of that element.

The ground state Electron configuration of oxygen atom is 1s2s2 2px2 2py1 2pz1.

As you can see the in 2py1 2pz1 last Electron configuration of oxygen atom have two unpaired electrons. So, valency of oxygen is Two (2).

How many valence electrons does Oxygen ion (O2-) have?

If we want to find the valence electrons of oxide ion  ( O2- ). We need to look for  valence electrons in oxide ion configuration.

O + 2e– â†’ O2-

As the oxide ion is made up of oxygen atom with -2 extra charge of oxide ion.

The atomic number of oxygen is 8. So Electron configuration oxygen atom is given by 2,6. In the electronic configuration the K shell have two electrons and L shell have six electrons. To form the oxide ion oxygen atom will gain  two more electrons to acquire extra stability or noble gas configuration. After gaining the extra stability of oxygen the electron configuration oxide ion is given by 2,8.

The electron configuration oxygen ion shows that valence electrons oxygen ion ( O2- ) is eight (8). Because of gaining these two electrons oxygen get charge of oxygen ion is -2 (Minus two). Due to this charge on the Oxygen ion it will start behaving as a noble gas due to noble gas configuration.

So after Forming this ion it can easily combine with the any of the positive charge ion like sodium ion (Na+ ).

Now let’s discuss

How is the Compound formation of Oxygen take place?

Whenever oxygen wants to make its compound by bond formation. These valence electrons will help to compound the formation of oxygen. oxygen will share their electrons with the neighbor hydrogen atoms.

As the Water molecule will be formed by two Hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.

In the Formation of water molecule, there valence electron of an atom will help them.

As it is clear from  electron configuration of Hydrogen atom and oxygen atom.Number of valence electrons in Hydrogen atom is one and Number of valence electrons in oxygen atom is six. This oxygen atom will take the two electrons from two Hydrogen atoms.

Hence form a water molecule ( H2O).

After gaining two electrons oxygen will complete its octet and acquire the Neon noble gas configuration.

But two Hydrogen share one-one electron and gain Helium noble gas configuration.

So One Oxygen atom shares two electrons with the two Hydrogen atoms to make the water molecule ( H2O) by the help of covalent bonding.

Role Of Valence Electrons In Bonding:

Valence electrons of an atom play an important role in the formation of bonds. If an atom will completely donate its electrons to another atom. Then an atom will form an ionic bond. But if an atom will just share its electrons with the other atoms then it will form a covalent bond.

For forming a covalent bond both atoms will share their one-one electron with each other and form their bond. For Making the double bond bother atom contributes there two-two valence electrons from there valence shell.

Role of valence electrons in formation of chemical compounds

Valence electrons of an atom describe which kind of chemical compound an atom will form when they are combined.

As the two atoms will share their valence electron with another atom. Then these two atoms will form the covalent bonds.

As the two atoms will permanently accept or loss their valence electron with another atom. Then these two atoms will form the Ionic bonds.

Valence electrons octet rule relationship

 Every atom wants to be stable in nature. Every atom needs to complete the valence electron shell. To do this every atom will complete its valence of eight electrons and acquire its stability by the Valence electrons octet rule relationship.

Smaller atoms like Hydrogen, Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron will try to complete their two electrons to make their atom stable. This rule is known as the doublet rule.

What valence electrons determine?

Valence electrons of an atom describe the physical properties and chemical properties.

If the valence electrons will be equal to either 1 or 2 or 3. Then atom with valence electrons will have the properties of Metal.

If valence electrons are either 5 or 6 or 7 will have the properties of Non-metals and otherwise, it will have the properties of Noble gases.

FAQs:

How many valence electrons are in a oxygen atom?

Valence electrons of an atom are the electrons that are present in the outermost shell. Electron arrangement in the oxygen is 2,6.
Valence electrons are six (6).

Is valence of oxygen 2 or 6?

The electronic configuration of oxygen atom is 2,6. So the valence electrons are 6 not the 2.

Can oxygen have 7 valence electrons?

No it is not possible. Oxygen arrange their electrons as 2,6. So there valence electrons are six not seven.

How does oxygen have 8 valence electrons?

An oxygen atom will have six valence electrons. But to gain the extra stability it will gain two more electrons to become stable according to Octet rule to form O2-.

Is oxygen a valency 2 or 2?

The oxygen atom will have a total eight electrons. The Electron configuration is 2,6. To complete its octet, it will gain two electrons to be stable. So, Valency of oxygen is 2.

How is valency calculated?

We can easily find out the valence for an atom using there valence electrons. Suppose the atom have four or less than four valence electrons then
valency = Number of valence electrons.
Otherwise valency = 8 – number of valence electrons.

How many bonds can oxygen form?

Two, The oxygen atom will have the valence electrons six. To Complete its octet (8) it needs two more electrons. So the valency of oxygen atom is two. Means oxygen can form two bonds.

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