Chandrayaan 3 Launch Date, Place and Time [UPSC NOTES]

Overview

Chandrayaan 3 is the upcoming third lunar exploration mission by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It will consist of a lander and a rover, similar to Chandrayaan-2, but without an orbiter. The mission’s propulsion module will act as a communications relay satellite, carrying the lander and rover to a lunar orbit 100 kilometers above the Moon’s surface.

 

Things That Need To Know About Chandrayaan 3:

Chandrayaan-2 Failed Yes
Purpose of Chandrayaan 3 To make a successful landing on the lunar surface
Chandrayaan 3 Lander Name VIKRAM
Chandrayaan 3 Budget Around 615 Crore
Chandrayaan 3 Launch Date 14-07-2023
Chandrayaan 3 Launch Time 2.35 PM
Chandrayaan 3 Launch Place BENGALURU
Chandrayaan 3 Launch Vehicle Mark-III (LVM3)

chandrayaan-3-lunar-mission-chandrayan-3

What are Objectives/ Purpose of Chandrayaan 3

ISRO has established three primary purpose for the Chandrayaan 3 mission:

1. Safe Landing: Successfully land the lander on the Moon’s surface in a controlled and gentle manner.

2. Rover Exploration: Demonstrate the rover’s capabilities by allowing it to move and explore the lunar terrain.

3. Scientific Observations: Conduct scientific experiments on the Moon’s surface to better understand its composition, including chemical elements, soil, and water. Additionally, the mission aims to develop and demonstrate new technologies required for interplanetary missions.

Background of Chandrayaan 3 Mission

Chandrayaan 3 follows the previous lunar mission, Chandrayaan-2, which encountered a software glitch during its soft landing attempt, resulting in the failure of the lander’s descent. This setback prompted ISRO to propose another lunar mission to address the landing capabilities required for future exploration.

There were earlier reports of a collaboration with Japan for a mission to the lunar south pole, where India would provide the lander while Japan contributed the launcher and rover. This collaborative mission could involve tasks such as site sampling and testing lunar night survival technologies.

The failure of the Vikram lander in Chandrayaan-2 led to the pursuit of another mission to demonstrate the necessary landing capabilities for the Lunar Polar Exploration Mission, proposed in partnership with Japan for 2025. During critical flight operations, the European Space Tracking (ESTRACK) system operated by the European Space Agency (ESA) will support the mission under a contract.

Failure of Chandrayaan 2

The Chandrayaan-2 mission encountered a last-minute software glitch, causing the Vikram Lander to crash-land on the Moon’s surface. According to an internal report presented to the Space Commission, the lander lost control just 500 meters short of the lunar surface.

Efforts are underway to locate the lander and retrieve data, as it was intended to analyze the Moon’s terrain and transmit information for 14 days. The software glitch was unexpected since it had functioned well during the trial period.

During the descent, the Vikram Lander successfully glided from a height of 30 kilometers to 5 kilometers. However, it encountered trouble during the final stage of “fine braking,” where only one of its thrusters operated, slowing it down to 146 meters per second.

The lander deviated from its intended trajectory and crashed 750 meters away from the target landing site, causing damage to its onboard equipment and rendering it incommunicado.

ISRO’s internal committee, led by Liquid Propulsion System Centre director V. Narayanan, conducted an examination of the Moon’s surface. They also gathered information from space agencies like NASA.

ISRO has planned a mission to rectify the mistakes and relaunch Chandrayaan-2 in November, building a new lander and rover that will be connected to the existing orbiter orbiting the Moon.

Difference between Chandrayaan 2 and Chandrayaan 3

  Chandrayaan-3 Chandrayaan-2
Orbiter Not included Included
Payload SHAPE (Spectro-polarimetry of HAbitable Planet Earth) Not equipped with SHAPE
Propulsion Module Equipped with SHAPE Not equipped with SHAPE
SHAPE Function Study spectral and polarimetric measurements of Earth from lunar orbit Not applicable
Spectro-polarimetry Technique involving splitting light into constituent colors and analyzing their polarization Not utilized in this mission
Application Analyzing Earth’s spectro-polarimetric signatures to evaluate habitability of exoplanets Not applicable

About the Chandrayaan 3 Lander and Rover

The lander for Chandrayaan 3 will be equipped with four throttle-able engines, unlike the five engines of the Vikram lander in Chandrayaan-2. Additionally, it will feature a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) and stronger impact legs compared to its predecessor. ISRO is focusing on improving the structural rigidity and incorporating multiple contingency systems.

Chandrayaan 3’s Lander

Chandrayaan 3’s Lander Payload is equipped with special tools to study and gather information about the Moon. These tools include:

Chandrayaan-3-Lander-all-detail
  1. ChaSTE:

Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment. It measures how hot or cold the Moon’s surface is and how well it conducts heat.

  1. ILSA:

Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity. This tool measures how much the Moon’s surface shakes, like an earthquake detector.

  1. Langmuir Probe:

This tool checks the air around the Moon, called the lunar ionosphere, to see how many charged particles are there.

  1. Passive Laser Retroreflector Array:

This is a set of special mirrors that helps measure the distance between the Moon and the Earth using lasers.

 

Rover Payloads on Chandrayaan 3 include:

  1. Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer:

This tool identifies what elements are present on the Moon’s surface.

  1. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy:

This tool checks what chemicals make up the Moon’s surface.

The main purpose of Chandrayaan 3 is to explore and gather information about the Moon’s surface, like its rocks and makeup.

Scientists will use these tools to learn more about the Moon’s history, how it has changed over time, and what resources it has.

This information will be valuable for planning future missions to the Moon and understanding more about our celestial neighbor.

Chandrayaan 3’s launch is a significant achievement for India’s space program. It shows the hard work and dedication of the ISRO team and will contribute to our knowledge of the Moon.

Chandrayaan 3 LANDER and ROVER all detail

Funding

In December 2019, ISRO requested initial funding of ₹75 crore (US$9.4 million) for the Chandrayaan 3 project. Out of this amount, ₹60 crore (US$7.5 million) is allocated for machinery, equipment, and capital expenditure, while the remaining ₹15 crore (US$1.9 million) is sought for revenue expenditure. Former ISRO chairman K. Sivan confirmed the existence of the project and estimated the total cost to be around ₹615 crore (US$77 million).

What is the main objective of Chandrayaan-3?

The main objective of Chandrayaan-3 are the Following:-
1.Demonstrate a safe landing on the moon’s surface
2.Showcase the ability to explore and move around on the moon
3.Study the properties of the lunar regolith (the moon’s surface material) in terms of how it conducts heat and its temperature
4.Investigate the occurrences of seismic activities on the moon, such as moonquakes
5.Analyze and understand the plasma environment present on the lunar surface

What is special about Chandrayaan-3?

Chandrayaan-3 have mainly these three parts a lander module, propulsion module, and rover. The lander will make a soft landing on the Moon and deploy the rover. The rover will analyze the chemical composition of the lunar surface. The mission’s objective is to explore the Moon and gather data to enhance our understanding of its geology.

Why was Chandrayaan-3 launched?

The main goal of the Chandrayaan-3 mission is to show that we can safely land a spacecraft on the Moon. It will carry a lander and a rover to the lunar surface. This mission comes after the Chandrayaan-2 mission, which had a problem during landing in September 2019 and was not successful.

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